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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 1-10

International Conference on Pharmaceutical, Medical and Environmental Health Sciences (IPharME 2014)

Date of Web Publication21-Nov-2014

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How to cite this article:
. International Conference on Pharmaceutical, Medical and Environmental Health Sciences (IPharME 2014). Arch Pharma Pract 2014;5, Suppl S1:1-10

How to cite this URL:
. International Conference on Pharmaceutical, Medical and Environmental Health Sciences (IPharME 2014). Arch Pharma Pract [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 15];5, Suppl S1:1-10. Available from: http://www.archivepp.com/text.asp?2014/5/5/1/145280

Ginger oil induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle at G1 and S phase against human breast cancer cell

Thamilvaani Manaharan, Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, M. S. Kanthimathi

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: vaani@um.edu.my

Chinese ginger is one of the most widely used herbal medicine traditionally used for ailments. The chemotherapeutic effect of ginger has been extensively studied and its shown anticancer activity via multiple molecular pathways. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited information about the anticancer effects of essential oil from ginger. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer potential of the ginger oil and to determine its ability to induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Ginger oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The effect of the ginger oil on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was determined by the MTT assay. Biological evidence on induction of apoptosis by the ginger oil was obtained through propidium iodide (PI) staining of the apoptotic nucleic of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was carried out to measure the extent of apoptosis and to analyse the cell cycle distribution of MCF-7 cells after treatment with various concentrations of ginger oil. The yield of essential oil from the ginger (100 g) was about 0.5%. Ginger oil inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 44 ΅g/ml. Propidium iodide staining exhibited more apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments in the MCF-7 cells treated with the ginger oil (50-800 ΅g/ml) than the control cells treated with the vehicle (0.1% DMSO). In our flow cytometry analysis, there is a marked increase in the population of apoptotic cells - 13%, 35%, 70% and 92%, following the treatment with ginger oil at 50, 100, 200, and 400 ΅g/ml, respectively. These results has shown that the ginger oil induced apoptosis is dose-dependently in the MCF-7 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that the ginger oil arrested the cell cycle at G1 and S phases, leading to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This suggests that the ginger oil could be a pro-apoptotic agent and can be investiagted to identify its potential in the treatment of breast cancer.

Inhibition of human breast cancer MCF-7 cell proliferation and MMP-9 gene expression by essential oils of Ocimum sanctum

Jayakumar Rajajreswaran, Thamilvaani Manaharan,

M. S. Kanthimathi

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail : 0 jayakumar7979@ummc.edu.my

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) released from the inflammatory cells are involved in the development and progression of human cancers. Among the various MMPs, MMP-9 is found to be involved in metastasis of breast, colon and ovarian cancers. Natural products are effective in reducing inflammation and carcinogenesis. The essential oils from Ocimum sanctum was tested for its effect on inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and reducing the expression of MMP-9 in human lymphocytes. The human lymphocytes were treated with lipopolysacharride to induce inflammation and then treated with essential oils. The expression of MMP-9 was analyzed using gelatin zymography and reverse transcriptase PCR methods. The inhibitory effects of essential oils on the proliferation of MCF-7 were tested using MTT assay and real time PCR analysis. The gelation zymography results showed that MMP-9 expression was completely inhibited at 250 ΅g/ml of essential oil. A dose dependent decrease in the expression of MMP-9 was observed in reverse transcriptase PCR. Treatment of essential oil on MCF-7 cells resulted in an inhibition of 50% of cells (IC 50 ) at 170 ΅g/ml. The real time PCR analysis showed that essential oil up-regulated the genes involved in apoptosis such as BCL2, BID and p53.

Characterisation of the X-ray attenuation ability by ion-implanted epoxy, acrylic and glass

Nurul Z. B. N. Azman 1,2 , It. M. Low 2 , Mihail Ionescu 3

1 School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia, 2 Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia, 3 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia, E-mail: n.noorazman@student.curtin.edu.au

X rays hazards were recognized during the early part of the 20th century. The need for an X-ray shield in applications using X-rays has become very common now-a-days. A person is considered to be in a state of very high danger without a proper X-ray shield,. Furthermore, X-ray shielding requirements have become a mandatory and more stringent with regard to standards for exposure of personnel and the general public. This study seeks to provide a novel approach for producing technologically viable new radiation shielding materials to meet the safety requirements for use in medical X-ray imaging facilities, based upon the dispersion of heavy element fillers into polymeric materials by ion-implantation methods. Samples of epoxy, acrylic and glass were implanted with tungsten (W) and lead (Pb) to investigate their X-ray attenuation characteristics. The near-surface composition depth profiles of ion-implanted epoxy, acrylic and glass samples were studied using ion-beam analysis (Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy-RBS). The effect of implanted ions on the X-ray attenuation ability was studied using a general radiology unit with X-ray tube voltages ranging from 40 to 100 kV at constant exposure 10 mAs. As predicted, the RBS results and X-ray attenuation for all ion-implanted epoxy, acrylic and glass increase with the type of implanted ions when compared to the unimplanted samples. Moreover, since the glass is denser than epoxy or acrylic, it has provided the higher X-ray attenuation property and higher RBS ion concentration implanted with a shorter range of the ion depth profile when compared to epoxy and acrylic. Thus glass is the best candidate for implanting with very high RBS ion concentration and is able to attenuate more X-rays as compared to epoxy or acrylic but it is fragile and easy to break; thus we need to handle it carefully for using as X-ray shielding. In contrast, even though epoxy or acrylic are inferior in terms of density, melting point and seems not an ideal applicant but an implanted epoxy and acrylic can still be chosen as a candidate for X-ray shielding because they are tougher and lighter as compared to glass but prolonged time is needed when implanted them with a high nominal dose to prevent them to melt during the implantation process.

A study to compare the efficacy of (bupropion + naltrexone) combination and alpha methyldopa targeting pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal activation in high fat diet induced obese rats

Mohana Babu Amberkar, R. Raoprethendhirasingh,

Jojo Thomas, Meena Kumari, Adarshpreet Kaur

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India, E-mail: drmohan7amberkar@gmail.com

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) a polypeptide generated from centrally projecting arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus plays a key role in regulation of appetite, energy balance and obesity through anorexigenic leptin. To compare the efficacy of (bupropion + naltrexone) combination with alpha methyldopa. Six week old male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (total 24, n = 6). Gr. I rats were given free access to ad libitum; remaining rats were divided into Gr II, III and IV and fed with high fat diet with vehicle, (bupropion + naltrexone) combination and alpha-methyldopa daily, for eight weeks respectively. Rats weight were measured every week and also at the end of study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical estimation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels. Anthropometrical index of rats was calculated by measuring body length, thoracic and abdominal body circumferences. Statistical analysis was done by One way and multivariate Anova. A P value < 0.05 was used to determine significant difference between the groups. The current study aim the rats treated with (bupropion + naltrexone) combination and alpha-methyldopa group showed statistically significant decrease in body weight, blood glucose and lipid levels compared to only high diet fed group (P < 0.05). Among all four groups maximum reduction in body weight, blood glucose and lipid levels was exhibited by (bupropion + naltrexone) combination treated group of rats. However, statistical difference between (bupropion + naltrexone) combination and alpha-methyldopa treated group were not comparable. Combination of (bupropion + naltrexone) therapy effectively controlled high fat diet induced obesity, proving its high efficacy in enhancing POMC stimulation mediated suppression of appetite compared to alpha-methyldopa treated rats.

Formulation of anti-diabetic herbal tea from basil leaves

A. K. Obidul Huq 1,2 , K. M. Formuzul Haque 3 ,

H. N. M. Ekramul Mahmud 1

1 Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2 Department of Food Technology and Nutritional Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail - 1902, 3 Department of Nutrition and Food Engineering, Daffodil International University, Dhaka - 1207, Bangladesh, E-mail: obidul@siswa.um.edu.my

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major public health concerns in Bangladesh. The current study aim to formulate anti-diabetic herbal tea from natural holy basil leaves (Tulsi), and see its effect on the blood the major goal was to maintain the blood glucose level for them. This study was carried out in two phases. In first phase, Anti-diabetic tea was formulated by appropriate processing of basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves. To increase its efficiency and potentiality minute amounts of natural Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, ginger (Zingiber officinale), F-O Blended powder (Herbal Mix) and Stevia spp. were incorporated by guarded secret ratio. This recipe was standardized and evaluated for organoleptic acceptability by nine point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability score was 7.2 out of 9.0 (acceptable). In second phase, 30 individual (15 supplement group and 15 control group) of 45-50 years type-2 diabetic patients were randomly selected for a three-month clinical trial. Both groups were age and BMI matched. At the onset of the study, no significant differences found in both groups but after three months results showed that there was a significantly (P < 0.05) lowering effects on blood glucose level in both fasting and after 2 hours post prandial compare to control group. No harmful or toxic substances presence in the formulated tea during animal studies. Again, it does not alter normal hematological values in both groups. Thus, this study recommends that the type 2 diabetic patients can consume this herbal tea on regular basis which shows a good hypoglycemic effect.

Simbagh Utak (Hydnophytum sp) as a new potential candidate for antioxidant and anticancer treatment

Yosie Andriani 1,2 , Agus Sundaryono 2 , Aceng Ruyani 2 ,

Jasnizat Saidin 1

1 Institute Marine Biotechnology, University of Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Kuala Terengganu, 21030, Malaysia, 2 Magister Program in Science Education (S2-IPA) of FKIP-UNIB, Jl. Raya Kandang Limun, Bengkulu, Indonesia, E-mail: yosie_harsa@yahoo.com

Simbagh Utak (Hydnophytum sp) is one of herbal medicines in Bengkulu (Indonesia) that has been used as a traditional medicine for anticancer treatment since a long time. Breast cancer is one kind of cancers that leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. An estimated 1.3 million new cases of breast cancer and 465,000 breast cancer deaths were expected to occur among women in 2007. Report by World Health Organization (2009) showed that breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, include Malaysia and Indonesia. One of the most common methods of cancer treatment is chemotherapy. Many chemo therapeutic drugs have adverse side effects during the treatment of patients. These side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, sore mouth, diarrhoea, hepatotoxicity, myelo-suppression and immunosuppression, are commonly encountered in patients who are treated with chemotherapy. There is a critical need for the development of new anticancer agents which has a minimal or no side effects. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Hydnophytum sp against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7), as a new potential source for anticancer treatment. Extract was obtained by maceration using 96% ethanol. Fractionation of the extract was done by using LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant property was carried out by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, using ELISA micro plate reader. While, the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell lines was done by MTT assay. Results showed that Hydnophytum sp extract was exhibited radical scavenging activity with the inhibition percentage by 72% and cytotoxicity property against MCF-7 with the IC 50 less than 1.0 ΅g/ml. Our results provide evidence that extract ethanol of Hydnophytum sp has potencies as antioxidant and anticancer agents against MCF-7 cell lines, which merits for further study of compounds structure and mechanism of Hydnophytum sp as anticancer agents.

Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal problems among cashiers in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor

Nurhidayah Sabri, Krishna Gopal Rampal 1

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Penang, 1 Faculty of Medicine, UKM Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: dayah7321@uitm.edu.my

Musculoskeletal problems are defined as aches, pain or discomfort on neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, upper back, lower back, hip, thigh, knees or feet. It is one of the most common problems due to ergonomics hazard. Cashiers are prone to this problem because the nature of their work needs them to work in non-ergonomic posture, repetitive motion and prolonged standing. The general aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among study samples. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between musculoskeletal problems and socio-demographic factors, body mass index and job factors among study samples. A cross-sectional study was conducted at selected supermarket around Kuala Lumpur and Selangor involving 210 cashiers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Socio-demographic information and job characteristics as well as musculoskeletal symptoms for the past 12 months were collected by using Nordic Standardized Questionnaire. Their motion and posture during working was observed and recorded in a time motion study. Result shows that prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among cashiers is 74.3%. Whereas the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems which impair the work activity among cashiers is 46.2%. The most common body site of musculoskeletal problems among supermarket cashiers is upper back. Results from time motion study showed 60.2% of cashier's motion during working is reaching. Bivariate analysis showed significant association between duration of work, age and body mass index with musculoskeletal problems. Multivariate analysis showed significant association between age and body mass index with musculoskeletal problems. Musculoskeletal problems are multi-factorial. It is a burden to both employers and employees. Preventive and control action should be taken to control the modifiable risk factors. This is crucial as musculoskeletal problems can give negative impact to workers' quality of lives, lost-time work due to high absenteeism, employees' productivity reduces and increase the medical compensation claims.

Returned medications: Waste or opportunity?

Che Noriah Othman, Roz Azinur Che Lamin, Nursyuhadah Othman

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Penang, Malaysia, E-mail : 0 chenoriah.othman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Returned medications reuse in hospital pharmacies are sometimes considered inappropriate by a part of the community. it is seen that returned medicines are suitable for reuse and assist to reduce the cost. This research is conducted by analysing the medication returned at the pharmacy counter in Out Patient Department (OPD), of one government hospital in Malaysia under a drug returned campaign. The medicines collected are stored in a particular box before transferred to pre-packaging unit in OPD. We then separated the expired and physically inadequate medicines from medicines that are possible to be reused under strict criteria determine by both assistant pharmacist and pharmacist in charge. Then, both categories of medicine are recorded for its quantity, therapeutic class, dosage form and total cost estimated for the medicine. The focus of this study was to identify the percentage of medicine returned that is desirable for usable and common therapeutic class and dosage form that are usually returned by the patients. Another focus of this study was to predict the total cost that can be saved by reusing returned medications. In 12-study weeks of the period, total returned medicines recorded were 284366 items including expired medications. After selected by OPD staff, about 190158 (67%) were categorized as reusable drugs while the others were for the disposal. The value of the drug return was about RM 168,148. This result shows that medication return can save a lot of costs and reduce wastage.

Knowledge and practice on the use of insulin pen injection: Case study

Nursyuhadah Othman, Roz Azinur Che Lamin, Che Noriah Othman

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: syuhadaho@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is related to the inability of a person to produce sufficient amount of insulin. Insulin pen injection treatments are often prescribed as therapy for diabetes management. In order to make sure the effectiveness in controlling the glycemic index in diabetic patients, they must apply the correct technique of insulin injection. However, due to the diverse background of patient's knowledge and practice, it may result in different effect on the performance of insulin injected. Therefore, there is a need to check patient's insulin pen injection practices and knowledge to avoid the possibilities of complication caused by the incorrect way of injecting insulin. We carried out this study at one hospital at the Southern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 30 respondents who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria volunteered to take part in this research. They were given a survey consisted three main parts which include the respondent's demographic information, disease conditions and their knowledge on the insulin pen injection technique. All data were tabulated and analysed using the SPSS version 16. Out of 30 respondents, 47%, (n = 14) were between 45 and 60 years old. Majority of the respondents, 66%, (n = 20) were unaware of the type of their diabetes mellitus however, they were able to perform the injection procedure correctly. The result is supported by the claimed made by them stating that they did not experience any pain while injecting the insulin. The result of the study also strengthens their claims where a total of 22 respondents (73%) comply the instruction on how to use the insulin pen injection. The same percentage of respondents (73%) scored satisfactory level when they were tested on their knowledge about insulin pen injection technique. This preliminary study concluded that most of the respondents know how to use the injection pen correctly. However, the health authorities should take continuous measurements to educate the patients and the relatives to make sure the effectiveness of the diabetes treatment sustained. A larger scale survey on the patient's knowledge and practice on insulin pen injection would be beneficial to ensure the satisfactory level of effectiveness is met.

Contributing factors of smoking relapse among smoking abstainers in Malaysia

Roz Azinur Che Lamin, Nursyuhadah Othman, Che Noriah Othman

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Penang, Malaysia, E-mail: roz.azinur@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Many smokers fail to stop smoking because of addiction behavioural mediated by nicotine. Tobacco dependence that sustained by nicotine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder and becoming one of the world prevalence problems. Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) has organized a Quit Smoking Clinic (QSC) program in order to help the smokers to quit smoking. This QSC program has been practicing several methods of smoking cessation such as nicotine replacement therapy and drug therapy. The objective of this study was to identify the socio-demographic of the smokers and also to investigate the relapse quit attempts and factors associated with failure in quitting smoking. This study was a cross-sectional study from August 2013 until Jan 2014. We conducted this study in the northern state of peninsular Malaysia. We managed to get 50 respondents who had participated in the QSC before aged between 20 to 70 years old. Some of the respondents were given a self-administrated questionnaire to answer while the rest were interviewed through telephone. Almost half of the respondents 48%, (n = 33) have experienced the relapse to smoking and 52% of them remain abstinent. From our findings, there were 7 factors that contributed the smoking relapse among the abstainers. 76% of the relapse smokers stated that they smoked back because they were having craving for cigarettes. However, the number of cigarette per day has been decreased. While 52% of the participants claimed that they were more likely started smoking when they were with their peers. While 18% and 9% of respondents relapsed to smoking when they were under pressure and feel bored respectively. Other reasons such as to avoid from gaining the body weight, mood changes and smoking for social purposes represented only 3% respectively. Most of the respondents were expecting that by smoking they can alleviate the stress, reducing anxiety and suppressing appetite. This study concluded that cigarette craving is the major factors that contribute the abstainer to relapse. This group of persons needs continuous support and educational technique on how to control the craving pressure even though they have finished the QSC program. Moral support from the nearest persons to the smoking abstainer is highly appreciated, especially from family members and colleagues. Besides that stress management was highly recommended to the smoking abstainers so that they can avoid smoking whenever they feel depressed, bored and mood changes. The good practice of exercise and balance diet also can help them to manage their body weight.

Treatment and clinical consequences of hyperphosphatemia among maintenance haemodialysis patients

Khurshid Alam, Maryam Farooqui, Che Noriah Othman

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: muhdkhurshid79@gmail.com

Hyperphosphatemia grows in the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has been associated with development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy among dialysis patients and a major challenge for all subjects. Phosphate retaining leads to increase in serum phosphorus and as a result hyperphosphatemia occurs, which has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Thus, phosphate control is critical to normalize in haemodalysis patients. Many phosphate binders are available for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Management of hyperphosphatemia also relies on dietary restriction, the use of phosphate binders and dialysis. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia with sevelamer drug, a non calcium and non-metal containing phosphate binder, is associated with a useful impact on vascular calcification progression, bone disease and with a survival benefit in hemodialysis populations. It has been found that sevelamer is superior to calcium-containing phosphate binders in terms of a reduction in vascular calcification and LDL-C levels, in control of hyperphosphatemia and as evidences show that calcium-containing phosphate binders, increase vascular calcification. It was vital to observed that a combination of calcium-based phosphate binders with calcitriol or related analogs for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism increases absorption of calcium and phosphorus, as well as over-suppression of PTH production. This increases the risk of low-turnover bone disease and worsens the risks associated with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The development of more effective and healthier tolerated therapies for the management of hyperphosphatemia is, having of significant clinical value. Thus the aim of this review is to discuss the treatment and clinical consequences among haemodialysis patients.

Parameters governing the suitability of MAGAT gel as a dosimeter

N. N. Ashikin, N. A. Razak, Azhar, A. Rahman, Sivamany, Kandaiya

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14200, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: ohm_poisse@yahoo.com

Polymer gel dosimeter is a radiation sensitive chemical dosimeter that can measure 3D dose distribution with high resolution. Due to the increasing complexity of radiotherapy treatment planning and delivery, accurate experimental radiation dosimetry plays an important role in the implementation and quality assurance of new treatment techniques. A polymer gel dosimeter must possess several important characteristics of a dosimeter to be able to measure absorbed dose precisely. Six important dosimetric properties of a dosimeter were determined in this study; accuracy, precision, temporal stability, spatial stability, beam profile and percentage depth dose (PDD). The MAGAT gels were made of 5% gelatin, 6% methacrylic acid and 10 mM tetrakis-hydroxy-methyl-phosphonium chloride (THPC). The irradiation of MAGAT gel was performed by 6-MV photon beam at a dose range 1-10 Gy and was imaged by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The dose response of MAGAT gel dosimeter was obtained from spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) of MRI signal. The accuracy of MAGAT gel dosimeter has a range within 4% for doses greater than and equal to 3 Gy. The reproducibility of the MAGAT gel dosimeter at one irradiation was less than 1% whilst the long term reproducibility was within 3% over the five month period. For temporal stability, the dose sensitivity of MAGAT gel dosimeter irradiate at 1-11 days post-manufacturing decreased over time. While the dose sensitivity imaged at 1-9 days post-irradiation increased up to 4 days post-irradiation and subsequently starts decreasing after 4 days till 9 days. The study of spatial integrity shows that when MAGAT gel dosimeter irradiated at high dose, there was no overshoots take place. The dose profiles of MAGAT gel dosimeter were taken from two different field sizes (10 cm Χ 10 cm and 30 cm Χ 30 cm) and show a close agreement with ionization chamber reading. From PDD measurement, the maximum dose (Dmax) of MAGAT gel dosimeter is 1.6 cm depth and the % deviation was within 5%. From the study of six dosimetric properties, MAGAT gel dosimeter shows a great dose response with a superior dose response and dose resolution. Thus the MAGAT gel dosimeter can be apply as a 3D radiotherapy dosimeter.

Alpha tocopherol and tocotrienol effect on late-phase fracture healing in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model: Healing vs, strength

Sharlina Mohamad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid 1

Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abd Aziz 50300 KL, Malaysia, E-mail: sharlina_my@yahoo.com

Osteoporosis may increase the risk of fracture and delay the healing process. Studies have shown that vitamin E may protect bone via its antioxidant properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of vitamin E on late phase bone fracture healing by analysing the histology and biomechanical strenght of bone in ovariectomised rats. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley (200 g- 250 g) rats were used in this study and they were divided into five groups, sham (SO), ovariectomised control (OVXC), and ovariectomised + 60 mg/kg alpha tocopherol (ATF), ovariectomised + 60 mg/kg tocotrienol (TEF), and ovariectomised + calcium (Ca). The right femora of the rats were fractured eight weeks after ovariectomy and ATF supplementations were given two days post-fracture, by oral gavage, six days per week, for eight weeks. The rats were euthanised and the right femora were harvested for assessment by histology and bone biomechanical strength (flexure stress, flexure strain, load, and Young's modulus). Supplementation with ATF and Ca increased the histological score significantly compared to the OVXC group, whereas supplementation with TEF failed to do the same. TEF supplementation on the other hand, improved bone strength, as shown by the significantly higher flexure stress when compared with the OVXC group. Ca significantly lowered the Young's modulus, but increased the histological score compared to the OVXC group. TEF supplementation did not improve bone healing compared to the OVXC group, but resulted in the strongest bone biomechanically compared to the other groups. Therefore, supplementation with TEF was able to increase the strength of healed fractured bone in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Further studies are required to explore the exact mechanism of TEF in promoting osteoporotic fracture healing.

Liquid-liquid extraction method for analysis of methamphetamine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Ruzilawati Abu Bakar, Halijah Miran

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, E-mail: tieimran@yahoo.com

Methamphetamine (also known as pil kuda) is one of the illicit drugs which are common among students and teenagers. In Malaysia, methamphetamine was found to be the most commonly abused amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) compared to other types of amphetamines. Therefore, fast and reliable detection of these drugs is important in toxicology and doping control. Many extraction methods such as solid phase (SPE) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) have been used for extraction of methamphetamine in biological fluid. However, these methods are expensive and may not be available in many laboratories. The objective of this study was to develop an effective liquid-liquid extraction method for methamphetamine in human urine. Optimization of the extraction method was done by varying the types of solvents used to extract the drug from the urine. Percentage recovery of methamphetamine extraction was investigated using a variety of extracting solvents (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, diethyl ether and chloroform) and solvents system (chloroform:isopropanol (9: 1) and chloroform:ethyl acetate:ethanol (3: 1: 1)). The analysis of the extracted drug was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with fluorescence detector. The extracting solvent system that consists of chloroform:ethyl acetate:ethanol (3: 1: 1) gave the highest recovery which is 87%. The optimized HPLC condition used for the analysis was a mixture of acetonitrile and deionised water at pH 2.4 in the ratio of 15: 85 v/v with a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. This study shows that liquid-liquid extraction method is reliable and cheaper alternative to SPE and SPME.

Chemical profiling with HPLC-PDA and chemometrics analysis for quality control of herbs

Chee-Yan Choo, Norshahidah Sahidan, Nurul Ain Mohd Nor

MedChem Herbal Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, E-mail: choo715@puncakalam.uitm.edu.my

The transition of traditional medicine to botanical drugs requires stringent quality control. The authentication of the herb used for the development of botanical drug is an important aspect of quality control. The aim of this study is to use the HPLC-PDA system to generate the chemical profile of the herb and subject it to the chemometrics analysis to generate a model for the quality control of herbs. The chemical profiles of the herb were generated using the HPLC-PDA system. The methanolic extract was subjected to separation with a reversed phase column (25 Χ 4.6 mm) connected to a photodiode array detector. A gradient method with an increasing amount of methanol in 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid was developed. The chemical profiles from 0 to 30 min were exported to the UnScrambler software and a principal component analysis was used to cluster the species. The model generated was able to discriminate the unknown species. In conclusion, HPLC-PDA with chemometrics was used for the quality control of herbs.

Antimicrobial susceptibility of E. faecalis isolated from dental infections to triclosan, amoxicillin, eugenol and their combinations

Anoosha P. Bhandarkar, Sughosh Kulkarni 1 , Jagdish 2

Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, Departments of 1 Microbiology and 2 Pedodontics, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, India, E-mail: anooshabhandarkar@gmail.com

E. faecalis
is a common pathogen in oral infections, especially in recurrent infections after root canal treatment (RCT). Several antimicrobials have been used along with root canal filling material to prevent post treatment infections, of which a combination of zinc oxide-Eugenol and amoxicillin is the standard practice. Triclosan, a newer antimicrobial agent claimed to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties has been introduced clinically for the same purpose. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding benefits of combining triclosan and eugenol. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of triclosan (T), amoxicillin (A) and eugenol (E) individually and in combinations against E. faecalis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of triclosan, amoxicillin and eugenol was tested against thirty different isolates of E. faecalis obtained from the oral samples of patients with dental infections following RCT. Four strains were found to be resistant to amoxicillin (MIC >8 ΅g/ml). These strains were then subjected to combinations of triclosan, amoxicillin and eugenol by checker board method. The mean MIC of triclosan and amoxicillin was 3.43 ΅g/ml and 3.85 ΅g/ml respectively, while eugenol did not show any inhibition upto concentration of 3200 ΅g/ml. For the resistant strains, the individual mean MIC values (in ug/ml) of T, A and E are 3.125, 18 and 3200 respectively. Triclosan combination with amoxicillin showed a rise in their individual MIC values (Mean MIC of T = 4.75 ug/ml and of A = 24 ug/ml) whereas its combination with eugenol showed more than four-fold fall in their individual MIC values (mean MIC of T = 0.58 ug/ml and of E = 300 ug/ml). The amoxicillin-eugenol combination too showed more than four-fold reduction in their individual MIC values (Mean MIC of A = 3.5 ug/ml and of E = 350 ug/ml). Both triclosan and amoxicillin act synergistically with eugenol to augment its antimicrobial potential against E. faecalis. However, triclosan in combination with eugenol inhibits E. faecalis at a lower MIC than that of amoxicillin with eugenol. Hence Triclosan-eugenol combination is found to be more efficacious against E. faecalis than amoxicillin-eugenol. Triclosan and amoxicillin are mutually antagonistic, not to be used in combination. Amoxicillin being a beta lactam antibiotic, bacteria have a high chance of developing resistance. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of E.faecalis and stands as a better alternative to amoxicillin in endodontic filling material to prevent post treatment infections.

Mechanism of apoptosis induction in oral cancer cells response to damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal extracts from Morinda citrifolia

Gohar Shaghayegh, Aied M. Alabsi

Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia, E-mail: aied@um.edu.my

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancies that has high morbidity and mortality rates with current therapies. For this reason, researchers have been concentrated on the usage of natural products as an alternative treatment in improving survival of these patients. Damnacanthal (DAM) and Nordamnacanthal (NDAM), the anthraquinone compounds, are isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni), which have been used for the treatment of several chronic disease including cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DAM and NDAM extract on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanism on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral cancer cell lines were treated with different concentration of DAM and NDAM for different hours. The antiproliferative effects of DAM and NDAM were determined by MTT assay. DNA fragmentation and morphological characteristics were analysed by gel electrophoresis assay, phase contrast and florescent microscope respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of apoptosis was detected by mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 and cytochrome c assays. Finally, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. DAM and NDAM showed cytotoxic activity against oral cancer cell lines, with the approximate IC50 ranging from 1.7 to >30 ΅g/ml after 72 h. DAM and NDAM were also found to have minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal cell line. The result of this study indicated that DAM and NDAM effectively inhibited the oral cancer cells growth and induced apoptosis. Acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) staining of OSCC cells treated with DAM and NDAM demonstrated that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. DAM and NDAM extracts were induced apoptosis of OSCC cells in vitro associated with caspase 3/7 and 9 activation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm) and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis of OSCC cells treated with DAM and NDAM were examined using annexinV-FITC, and Propidium Iodide cell cycle assays. These results suggest that DAM and NDAM can be potentially used as antitumor agents for oral cancer therapy.

Comparison of total phenolics, total flavonoids and b-carotene bleaching assay of Pereskia bleo leaf extracts

Anis Najwa Abdul Rani, Norliyana Amra, Roziahanim Mahmud

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia, E-mail: anisnajwa_abdulrani@yahoo.com.my

Pereskia bleo
which belongs to the family Cactacae is a well-known traditional medicine in the Malaysia for the treatment of diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure and diseases associated with rheumatism and inflammation. This study investigated and compared the total phenolics, total flavonoids as well as the β-carotene bleaching activity of the crude leaf extract of the plant. Four different extracts of differing degrees of polarity of P. bleo leaf are selected namely petroleum-ether extract, chloroform extract, methanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Total phenolics content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The four extracts show varied values ranged from 0.39 mg gallic acid/g to 6.15 mg gallic acid/g with chloroform extract exhibiting the highest content. The total flavonoids content was determined by using aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. Chloroform extract also exhibited the highest content among the four extracts which ranged from 21.83 mg quercetin/g to 116.88 mg quercetin/g. Antioxidant activity (AA) of these four extracts was evaluated according to the β-carotene bleaching method expressed as AA in percent inhibition relative to control, and inhibition percentage of the sample (I%). The AA value obtained ranged from 22.22 ΅g/ml to 55.56 ΅g/ml with both the chloroform and methanol extracts respectively exhibited the highest value. The percentage of inhibition (I%) value obtained ranged from 94.22% to 98.18% inhibition, where chloroform extract also exhibited the highest value. The present study implies that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known capable of oxidizing activities play an important role as the main contents of the antioxidant activity of these plant extracts. Following this promising finding, further study should be done to identify important phytochemical bioactives of medicinal significance for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development.

Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa methanolic fruit extracts

Norliyana Amran, Anis Najwa Abdul Rani, Roziahanim Mahmud

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia, E-mail: liyana_amran@yahoo.com

The fruit of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) have been used in the treatment of cough, asthma and diarrhea as traditional remedy and consumed as 'ulam' or raw salad locally. This study investigated the medicinally bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa methanol crude extract respectively. Total antioxidant activities of fruit extracts were assayed using two different methods; free radical scavenging method and bleaching method. The free radical scavenging assay was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while the bleaching assay was determined using b-carotene linoleic acid bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent respectively. The extraction of fruits was carried out by maceration at room temperature. The results demonstrated that B. racemosa extract exhibited a high antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay (EC50 15.80 ΅g/mL) and ί-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay (percent of inhibition 72.22%). B. racemosa also showed highest total phenolic content (14.70 mg galic acid/g) and total flavonoid content (130 mg quercetin/g) compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 mg gallic acid/g and 40.75 mg quercetin/g respectively). The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known capable of oxidizing activities play an important role as the major contents of these plants extract. Following this promising finding, further study is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for development of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products.

Preparation and optimization of curcumin-HPbCD complex bioadhesive vaginal tablets, an herbal antifungal agent for vaginal candidiasis by factorial design

Umme Hani, H. G. Shivakumar, Mohammed Younus Pasha

Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India, E-mail: ummehaniahmed@gmail.com

Candida albicans are the major cause of candidiasis. To achieve a better therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance in the treatment for vaginal candidiasis, herbal antifungal agent Curcumin which is 2.5 fold more potent than fluconazole at inhibiting the adhesion of candida albicans has been formulated in a bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Curcumin-HPbCD (hydroxypropyl b cyclodextrin) was first developed to increase the solubility of curcumin. The formation of the curcumin-HPbCD complex was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and FT-IR and evaluated for its solubility. Curcumin-HPbCD complex was formulated in a bioadhesive tablets using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC) and Carbopol 934P. A 23 factorial design was applied to investigate effect of polymers on % swelling and drug release of tablets. Tablets were characterized by studies of friability, hardness, tensile strength, % swelling, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, antifungal activity and X-ray studies in rabbit. DSC and FT-IR data of Curcumin-HPbCD indicate there was complex formation between the drug and HPbCD. Formulations showed 100% drug release from 5-12 hrs with best results in terms of % swelling and mucoadhesion. The in vivo X-ray studies showed the tablet adheres to vaginal mucosa upto 8 hrs. The developed Curcumin vaginal tablet could be a promising safe herbal medication and can ensure longer residence at the vagina and provide an efficient therapy for vaginal candidiasis.

Nutritional content of organic, jungle fowl, indigenous and broiler chicken meat in different cuts before and after cooked

Jamilah Ismail, Norsuhana Abdul Hamid,

Marina Abdul Manaf 1

Biology Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, 1 School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, E-mail: mareena@usm.my

The nutritional content of organic, jungle fowl, indigenous and broiler chicken meat in different cuts before and after cooked was determined. A total of 64 broilers consisted of 16 from each of organic, jungle fowl, indigenous and conventional chicken were obtained from chicken broiler suppliers and retail stores. The parts of chicken broiler analyzed were breast, thigh, breast skin and thigh skin. The chicken meats were cooked by steaming method at 82΀C for 10 min using water bath Flatlit 22 litre. The raw and cooked chicken meats were evaluated for proximate analysis including moisture, protein, fat and ash contents according to AOAC methodology (1995). The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The results show that raw indigenous broiler contained highest moisture in breast skin (78.89%) and thigh skin (80.40%) while conventional broiler had significantly highest moisture content (P < 0.05) in both breast (77.45%) and thigh (81.14%). Protein content was highest in breast part compared to other parts; with jungle fowl broiler contained the highest protein (24.20% in raw and 27.03% in cooked meat). Jungle fowl broiler contained the highest protein in all parts of cooked broiler analyzed. Breast skin was found to contain the highest fat compared to other parts in both raw and cooked meats. Conventional broiler had significantly highest fat content (P < 0.05) in both raw and cooked meat in thigh (5.06% for raw and 3.44% for cooked meat), breast skin (20.19 in raw and 22.63% in cooked meat) and thigh skin (19.42% in raw and 12.92% in cooked meat). Jungle fowl broiler contained the highest total ash in breast (1.13%), thigh (1.04%) and thigh skin (0.74%) among raw broilers. Meanwhile the highest ash content in breast (2.73%), thigh (1.45%) and thigh skin (1.68%) in cooked broiler were found in indigenous broiler. Organic broiler on the other hand contained significantly highest (P < 0.05) ash content in breast skin compared to other broilers in raw meat while cooked breast skin showed that conventional broiler had significantly (P < 0.05) highest ash content (2.98%) among other broilers. As a conclusion, the nutritional contents in chicken broilers in Malaysia vary according to species, specific parts and cooking treatment.

Characterization of recombinant protein of Pasteurella multocida serotype B

Jamal Hussaini, Noor Masyitah, Jumahat

Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh Selangor, Malaysia, E-mail: jamalh@salam.uitm.edu.my

Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal septicaemic bacterial disease, mainly in South and Southeast Asia, Africa and India which caused by Pasteurella multocida, a gram negative coccobacilli bacterium. It was a causative agent of thriftily significant diseases in livestock. The effectiveness and safety of available treatment and vaccines are limited due to antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study is to characterize recombinant protein of Pasteurella multocida Scientific Name Search  in developing vaccine against HS. Bacterial culture strain was cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium. Soluble proteins were extracted and separated electrophoretically using 12% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunogenic soluble proteins were detected by western blotting using anti-Pasteurella serum raised in rabbit against whole cell antigens of Pasteurella multocida and anti-rabbit antibody and identified. Recombinant protein was then expressed and transformed in E. coli. Expression and purification of recombinant protein was analyzed using SDS-Page. The separation of soluble proteins showed various molecular weights on the gel, ranging from 10 kDA to 170 kDA. According to the western blot analysis, the most intense band detected was of approximately 28 kDA and identified as lipoprotein B. Immunogenicity study of soluble protein will be carried out in response to immunogenic roles against HS and potential role in vaccine development. Purified recombinant protein size was obtained approximately 39 kDa after electropherically separated using 12% SDS-Page. According to the immunoblotting analysis, intensity band of purified recombinant protein treated with antisera from immunized rabbit detected on film was 5398.78 with P value equal to 0.0006 (P < 0.05). Expression and purification of recombinant protein of P. multocida was characterized and indicated. Further study on the immunogenicity study of recombinant protein will be carried out in response to immunogenic roles against HS and potential role in vaccine development.

Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of new calix[4]arene derivatives

Khairasari Floria Adina, Shafida Abd Hamida, Deny Susantia

Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, E-mail: shafida@iium.edu.my

Various microorganisms have survived for so many years by being able to adapt to antimicrobial agents, via either DNA transfer or spontaneous mutation. This process enables them to resist the existence of certain antibiotics, making the antibiotics become ineffective. Hence, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has driven the development to attempt new antimicrobial agents. In this study, series of new calix[4]arene derivatives bearing of sulfonic functional group at upper rim have been synthesized by treatment of calix[4]arene with sulforic acid. Their structure were identified by 1D NMR spectroscopic. All the synthesized derivatives were studied for antimicrobial testing using MIC and MBC method, and their synergistic effect were determined using FIC methods against 4 Gram-positives and 4 Gram-negatives bacteria. Furthermore, the bacteria's inhibition of each derivatives were compared between upper rim, lower rim and both of their functional groups. The outcomes for this research is quite satisfying that most of the calix[4]arene derivatives showed activities against all bacteria used. For the synergistic effect testing, the combination of the products with antibiotic are considered to be antagonism. Nevertheless, the new calix[4]arene derivatives still can be considered as new antimicrobial agents.

Isolation and anti-proliferative activity of natural products from green seaweed

Fitriyanti, Deny Susantia, Normawaty Mohammed Nooh

Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, E-mail: denysusanti@gmail.com

Seaweeds are marine organism that is chemically rich in source of different bioactive compounds of secondary metabolites. Selected green seaweed has been commonly consumed as human food due to their nutrient content. However, huge numbers of bioactive metabolites from green seaweed has been unexplored yet. The aims of this study are to isolate phytochemical from selected Malaysian seaweed and to investigate the antiproliferative activity of isolated compounds. Seaweed was extracted by soxhlet extractor with using organic solvents for 24 h, and then the crude seaweed was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography and column chromatography. The isolated compounds of seaweed were characterized by HRMS, FTIR spectroscopy, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. They also were studied for their ability to inhibit cell proliferation of breast cancer cell MCF-7 using MTT assay. Two isolated compounds that were identified as Coumarin derivative showed activity against MCF-7.

Plasmid profile analysis of non-O157 diarrheagenic  Escherichia More Details coli in Malaysia

Mohammad Nazmul Hasan Maziz, Md. Abdur Rashid,

Md. Fazlul Karim Khan

Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sg Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia, E-mail: nazmul@salam.uitm.edu.my

Non-O157 E. coli is an emerging pathogen. It is commonly present in food and food production animals. Predictions are made of the possible increase in problems associated with these emerging pathogens. In recent years increased attention has been focused on infections caused by isolates of E. coli serotypes other than O157. Infections with non-O157 E. coli are now increasingly recognized in many countries. The virulence profiles of most non-O157 E. coli are unknown. Therefore, easy detection, isolation, and characterization of non-O157 VTEC isolates are necessary for improving our knowledge of these organisms. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasmid profiles of all the isolates. Perfectprep Plasmid Mini preparation kit from Eppendorf, Germany, was used to extract Plasmid DNA and the method was followed according to manufacturer's instructions. A total of 50 non-O157 diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were examined. The organisms were isolated from GHKL, Malaysia, from patients with diarrhea. Plasmids were detected in 34 isolates with the plasmid occurrence rate (POR) of 68%. These 34 isolates appear to harbor 1 or more plasmids with the maximum of 4 plasmids. The sizes of the plasmid DNA range from the lowest 1.8 kb to the highest 96 kb. Supercoil DNA marker was used to provide reference plasmids of known molecular weight. This helped in calculating the molecular weight of the plasmids in this study.

Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and physicochemical properties of fresh and old Malaysian Tualang honey

Siti Nurfarhana Sabireen, Wan Ezumi Mohd Fuad

Programme of Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, USM Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, E-mail: wanezumi@usm.my

The quality and purity of honey are generally indicated by the formation and level of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). This organic compound, which is formed by acid-catalyzed dehydration of hexoses and by Maillard reaction, is one of the vital neo-formed food contaminants to be concerned due to its toxicological potential. As a result, the international recommended value for 5-HMF concentration in honey which is considered safe for human consumption must not be higher than 80 mg/kg. Despite the fact that old honey might contain higher HMF content, it is of apprehension particularly to the local Malaysian old folks who are still prefer consuming old and darker coloured honey for promotion of their health. As yet, there is dearth of scientific information on the safety and efficacy of aged honey available worldwide. The present study is one of the efforts to complement the toxicological documentation of old TH. Thus, this study analyzed the 5-HMF concentration and the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture content, free acid, lactones and total acidity) in Tualang honey (TH) which has been stored below 6 months (fresh honey) and 4 years (old honey). As suggested by the International Honey Commission, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilised in this study to determine the level of HMF in both honey samples. The physicochemical properties of TH on the other hand were evaluated using standard established protocols for each of them. Results obtained indicated that there were significant differences in the concentrations of 5-HMF and all the physicochemical properties between both TH samples. This data revealed that old TH exhibited higher values for all the parameters except the pH when compared to fresh TH. A considerable correlation was also noted between free acids, lactones and total acidity with 5-HMF concentrations. The current findings suggest that there were significant modifications in the chemical reactions between Tualang honey of different storage durations.

High performance liquid chromatographic determination of mefenamic acid in human plasma using UV Vis-detector

A. B. M. Helal Uddin Huda, J. Mohamad, Mohamed Al-Aama, Noorsyafawati Amiruddin

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Istana Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, E-mail: mohdhelal@hotmail.com

Mefenamic acid (MA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). It is a class of drug that provides analgesic and antipyretic (fever reducing effect) and in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effect. This study is focused to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of mefenamic acid in human plasma. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection method was developed for the detection of mefenamic acid. Protein precipitation technique using acetonitrile was used. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C 18 (150 mm Χ 4.6 mm, i.d 3.5 ΅m) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 2% triethylamine (pH was adjusted to 4.2 with phosphoric acid) in a ratio of 60:40. The retention time for mefenamic acid and diclofenac was 5.4 and 3.9 min respectively. The mefenamic acid was monitored under 280 nm using variable-wavelength detector. The recovery was found to be 83% for MA. The method was validated for following the CDER (Centre for Drug Evaluation and Research) guideline. Calibration plot were linear within the range from 250-5000 ng ml -1 with the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) of ≥0.99. The result from analysis of quality control of mefenamic acid which were termed as low, medium and high were analysed to get the precision and accuracy. The accuracy for intra-day for low, medium and high were 99.71%, 93.8% and 89.52% while for inter day were 97.67%, 93.46% and 91.67% respectively. On the other hand, coefficient of variance (CV) for intra-day precision for low, medium and high were found 2.57%, 2.45% and 1.45% and for inter day CV were 3.11%, 5.5% and 4.37% respectively. Diclofenac sodium was used as internal standard for this study.

Kinetics and equilibrium thermodynamic of lipase catalyzed synthesis of rutin aliphatic esters

Nurul N. A. Razak, Mohamad S. M. Annuar

Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: nurulnadiah_abdrazak@siswa.um.edu.my

In this study, flavonoids were enzymatically acylated with aliphatic acid as acyl donor by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. Three different flavonoid structures from classes of flavonoids were investigated; rutin (flavonols), naringin (flavanones) and catechin (flavanols). The effects of flavonoid structure on the reaction were investigated with lauric acid as an acyl donor. The results showed that rutin was the most reactive substrate. In fact, conversion yields were approximately 56 and 49%, respectively, for rutin and naringin. For aglycone flavonoid, i.e., catechin, no desired product was obtained. For different chain length fatty acid (C12-C16), no significant difference in conversion yield was observed among fatty acids used. Full factorial design (FFD) screening of rutin ester synthesis showed three selected variables to be significant viz: lauric acid concentration (M), temperature (΀C) and enzyme loading (g). The apparent kinetics of the esterification reaction followed a first-order behavior. The apparent first-order rate constant, k1 ' value increased with temperature. Activation energy for the esterification was calculated at 37 kJ mol−1 . The esterification process was endothermic with the enthalpy and entropy values calculated at 10.2 kJ mol−1 and 32.6 J mol−1 K−1 , respectively. Based on the value of Gibbs free energy change, the esterification reaction under the conditions studied is predicted to be non-spontaneous below 46΀C but spontaneous at higher temperatures.

The role of cytochrome P450 2A5 in mitochondria

Siti N. F. Muhsain 1,2 , Matti Lang 1 , A'edah Abu-Bakar 1

1 University of Queensland, Australia, 2 Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia, E-mail: sitinurfadzilah077@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Bilirubin (BR), a recognized neurotoxin and antioxidant, is produced in mitochondria and microsomes. Excessive BR is eliminated through glucuronidation catalysed solely by microsomal uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), an enzyme that is not present in mitochondria 1 . In mitochondria BR is regulated by oxidizing enzyme that depends on mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme has yet to be identified. We recently discovered the microsomal cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) enzyme oxidises BR to biliverdin (BV). Because microsomal CYP2A5 is targeted to mitochondria, more so in response to oxidative stress, it is plausible that it can function as mitochondrial BR oxidase. To explore mitochondrial CYP2A5 potential in oxidising BR. Microsomes and mitochondrial fractions were isolated from liver homogenates of mice treated with sub-toxic dose of pyrazole. CYP2A5 protein levels and activity were assessed by Western immunoblotting and fluorometric method, respectively. BR oxidation was determined spectrometrically. CYP2A5 protein levels and activity in both organelles significantly increased in treated mice. UGT1A1 protein levels was not detected in mitochondria but remained unchanged in treated microsomes. BR oxidation in both organelles increased after treatment and BR affinity for mitochondrial CYP2A5 was as strong as microsomal enzyme. Mitochondrial CYP2A5 can oxidise BR and its targeting to mitochondria during oxidative stress may facilitate BR regulation.

Comparative larvicidal efficacy of selected local herbal plants on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

Sundara Rajan Mahalingam 1 , Razali Ishak 2 ,

Amir Heberd Abdullah 3

1,3 UiTM Pulau Pinang, Kampus Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, 2 UiTM Kampus Puncak Alam, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, E-mail: sundararajan@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in Malaysia and other Southeast Asia countries. Aedes species are identified as primary vectors in the transmission of DF and DHF. It is characterized by anthropophagic feeding habits which defines it as a highly aggressive vector in the spread of DF and DHF among susceptible population. Currently, Malaysia is experiencing an upsurge of reported DF and DHF cases, especially in highly populated and urban dwelling areas. Statistics from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, further describes the situation as a phenomenal increase since the last 5 years. There is an imminent cause of concern as the number of cases and fatalities are on the rise. Existing practices and approaches in vector control looks futile and requires much needed improvements as countless numbers of man hours, money and machines were used to keep the infectious disease at bay. Aedes species mosquitoes are basically container breeders and often seek clear stagnant water to proliferate. It undergoes a 4 stage lifecycle, of which Ύ of it requires water. It takes about 7-10 days for the eggs to develop into adults. Climate change too plays a pivotal role in their aggressive breeding cycles with accelerated development stages. Current practices of control are through space spraying of chemicals which are targeted at adult mosquitoes and through larviciding for mosquito larvae. Destruction of larval stage forms are deemed more appropriate as their movements are restricted to a specific and defined water container area. Synthetic chemicals diluted with diesel were the universal methods of control applied during an outbreak of DF and DHF, and followed by environmental sanitary control measures. Vast areas of about 200-400 m radius are covered for each operation. These chemicals pollute the immediate environment and surface waters. Synthetic chemicals are known to develop resistance after regular and constant usage. For an environmentally safe control practice, the World Health Organization (WHO) has envisaged the use of environmentally friendly initiatives towards tackling the vector menace worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Elettariopsis smithiae Y.K. Kam (Serai Acheh), Strobilanthes crispus (Pokok Pecah Beling) and Kaempferia galangal (Cekur) herbal plant's essential oil extraction against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictuslarvae. The main parameters of study was directed at plant extract application and to determine their relative Lethal Concentration (Lc) killing rates. In the study, concentration of the herbal extracts raging from 10 to 100 ppm were tested against fourth instar larvae of Aedes species and their mortality percentages were enumerated. Lc 50 and Lc 90 values were used as standard markers for effective lethal concentration observations. 100.0% mortality of the specimens were observed within 24 h of administration of 50-100 ppm of Elettariopsis smithiae Y.K. Kam (Serai Acheh) and Strobilanthes crispus (Pokok Pecah Beling) extracts. The lowest Lc 50 calculated after 48 h against Ae. Aegypti is 2.5 mg/L on Strobilanthes crispus while for Ae. albopictus is 5.13 mg/L on Elettariopsis smithiae Y.K. Kam extracts. Based on the result, extracts of Elettariopsis smithiae and Strobilanthes crispus can be effectively used as natural bio-larvicides to contain the propagation and development of Aedes species larvae.

Patterns of drug-related problems in outpatients attending a pharmacist-managed mental health clinic

Yee Chang Soh, Nadzirah Yusof

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, E-mail: syc.chris@gmail.com

The occurrence of drug-related problems (DRPs) hinder patients from achieving the desired therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, the pharmacist-managed clinics that emphasize on medication management are incorporated into the ambulatory care system to improve on quality, safety and cost-effectiveness of patient care. the current study aim to explore the patterns of DRPs in outpatients who were prescribed antipsychotics and attended a pharmacist-managed mental health clinic. The present study included a total of 70 patients who presented to a public pharmacist-managed mental health clinic in Malaysia. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records of all subjects retrospectively. That includes patient demography, medical diagnosis, medication history, 8-item modified Morisky adherence scale score and documentation of DRPs. Of 70 subjects, 82 DRPs were revealed by the pharmacist on duty. The top 3 DRPs were untreated indication (n = 45, 55%), adverse drug event (non-allergic) (n = 25, 31%) and no effect of drug treatment or therapy failure (n = 6, 7%). Non-complaince to therapy was identified as a main problem among (n = 32, 38%), those patients forget to take the drug (n = 15, 18%) and patient unable to use the drug as directed (n = 9, 11%). Pharmacists recorded 154 interventions in 70 subjects with DRPs. Pharmacist intervened mostly by patient medication counselling (n = 66, 43%), assessment on patient's medication adherence (n = 63, 41%) and spoken to patient's family member or caregiver (n = 13, 8%). Upon pharmacist's interventions, 76% of the DRPs were partially solved, outcome interventions were not known (n = 12, 15%) and problem were totally solved (n = 5, 6%). Overall, this study revealed the high prevalence of DRPs in outpatients initiating antipsychotic medications. The pharmacist-managed mental health clinic could serve to improve health outcomes and quality of life of patients by ensuring quality use of medication.

Patient's adherence and factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy

Y. Y. Wong, C. F. Neoh, S. N. Z. Abdullah 1

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Bertam Campus, Penang, 1 Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia, E-mail: yuetyen@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Recent breakthrough of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the devastating Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) into a chronic treatable condition. With the proven benefits of ART, optimal adherence is critical in the success of disease management. Therefore, it is imperative to assess patient's adherence and to investigate possible facilitators or barriers to therapy adherence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the retroviral disease (RVD) medication therapy adherence clinic (MTAC) and outpatient pharmacy department in a tertiary hospital, Malaysia. Convenience sampling method was used and patients were interviewed using the English or translated Bahasa Malaysia version of adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) Baseline Questionnaire. Adherence to ART was defined as either never skipped any medications or had missed taking medications more than 3 months ago. Pre-identified factors were explored using chi-square or Fisher's exact test to document their associations with patient's adherence towards ART. A priori of P < 0.05 was set as significant result in the study. A total of 65 patients were surveyed. Majority of respondents (90.8%) were Malay population with 48 (73.8%) of them had been taking ART for more than 12 months. A total of 54 (83.1%) patients reported a complete adherence to ART. All patients claimed to have no doubt in their self-efficacy of taking medications as directed. Most patients (98.4%) believed that the medications will have positive effect on their health with only 2 of them had no idea that therapy non-adherence will lead to virus resistance. Simply forgot, busy with other things and slept through dose time were the principal reasons of skipping medications. Although more than half of patients (67.7%) satisfied with the social supports received from family members, it was not found to be significantly associated with patient's adherence (P = 0.432). More than 80% of patients in this study did not experience negative psychological states, which were thought to be barriers to ART adherence. Nonetheless, a total of 23 patients (35.4%) acknowledged having trouble to sleep but it was not significantly associated with patient's adherence (P = 1.000). Furthermore, CD4 count (P = 1.000) and demographic factors such as gender (P = 0.509), level of education (P = 0.642), residential area (P = 1.000) and duration of ART (P = 0.263) were not found to be significantly associated with patient's adherence. ART adherence was found to be high among patients nevertheless it was not found significantly associated with any of the pre-identified factors in this study.

Development of in vitro blood-brain barrier models using primary brain endothelial cells

Mahathir Mohd. Uzid, Nur Aziah Hanapi, Siti Rafidah Yusof

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia, E-mail: sryusof@usm.my

The brain endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels and its surrounding neurovascular unit formed a complex structure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The barrier maintains homeostasis of the brain, ensuring optimum microenvironment for neuronal function. Good in vitro BBB models can offer close phenotypic resemblance to BBB in vivo, and particularly useful for BBB permeability studies and its underlying mechanisms. For this reason, we aimed to develop in vitro BBB models using primary porcine brain endothelial cells in monoculture and co-cultured with primary rat astrocytes. Porcine cerebral microvessels were isolated and cultured on collagen and fibronectin-coated cell culture flasks until ~70% confluency was reached. To set up the BBB monoculture model, primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) that grew out of the microvessels were trypsinized and seeded onto semi-permeable Transwell; inserts. The PBECs grew to confluence in a monolayer. For non-contact co-culture model, isolated primary rat astrocytes were cultured in wells of the Transwell; plates to induce BBB properties of the PBECs. The hallmark of brain endothelial cells which are the building blocks of the BBB is highly restrictive tight junctions between adjacent cells. To measure this in our models, transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the cell monolayers was measured using WPI STX-100C chopstick electrode pair connected to EVOM meter. Cell monolayers that showed TEER of >200 Ω.cm2 were used for permeability assays for selected marker molecules to further characterise our models. From the results, the PBECs showed restrictive tight junctions and polarised expression of transporters. The in vitro models proved useful as tools to study BBB permeation and to gain additional insights into BBB transport activity.

Prevalence of use and attitude towards complementary medicine among cancer patients in Malaysia

Che Noriah Othman, Maryam Farooqui, Mahibub Kanakal

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam campus, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: chenoriah.othman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to a broad set of health care practices that are not part of that country's own tradition or integrated into the dominant health care system, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO, 2014). Although CAM therapies are not proven scientifically, it has been used widely to treat various illnesses including cancer. Malaysia appreciated the same recognition. Research on the use of CAM among cancer patients is documented world-wide however Malaysia conducted only very few research related to CAM users. So this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of use of CAM among cancer patients in Malaysia. Validated self-constructed questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected cancer patients at various oncology wards at one government hospital in Malaysia. Patients who agreed to participate were briefly explain on the questionnaires and were asked to fill up the questionnaires with the assistance of researchers. Data were collected, analysed and displayed in graphs and tables. There were 24% of the total respondents claimed that they were using CAM beside their hospital treatment. The claimed came from different age groups of various types of cancer patients. Majority of them were suffering from haematological cancer followed by colorectal and breast. The major types of CAM used were Malay Traditional Herbs (30%), Islamic Medicine (27%) and Chinese Traditional Treatment (10%). Reasons for using were to lower down the effect of chemotherapy, to reduce pain and to increase their immune system. In the majority, their family members and friends were recommending them to use CAM. Their positivity towards CAM increased when they have a lack of hope on hospital treatments and when seeing the recovery of another cancer patient who has used CAM. How-ever only 18% of the TCM users were willing to disclose their practice to their doctors. Our study concluded that the prevalence of use of CAM among cancer patients still low in this group of study. However since the sample size is small we cannot give a very representative conclusion. More study on a larger group and wider scope of diseases should be conducted to ensure the data accuracy. However, this study can provide some information on the use of CAM among cancer patients in Malaysia.

The effect of permanent occlusion of common carotid arteries on electroencephalogram (EEG) in rat's brain

Nor Fasihah Azam 1 , Zurina Hassan 1,2 , Hans C. Dringenberg 3

1 Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, 2 Centre for Neuroscience Services and Research, Health Campus, University Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, 3 Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada, E-mail: norfasihah.azam@hotmail.com

The permanent occlusion of common carotid arteries (POCCA) causes a significant reduction of cerebral blood flow (hypoperfusion) in rats. It represents a well established experimental model in order to study neuronal damage and cognitive impairment that occurs in human dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used to study the function of brain by recording brainwaves during controlled behaviour in human and laboratory animals. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of POCCA and sham-operated rats on EEG which were recorded on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) common carotid arteries were permanently ligated. The electrodes were implanted on frontal, sensory, hippocampus left and right and the EEG activity was recorded in freely moving rats. The activity was recorded, amplified, filtered (band pass filters to separate and display the frequency bands: Delta, 0.1-3.5 Hz; Theta, 3.6-7.5 Hz; Alpha, 8-13 Hz; Beta, 14-30 Hz) and digitized (200 Hz) by PowerLab/4s system. The POCCA rats on the frontal region shows suppression of brain activity up to day 21, but, day 28 resulted increase in theta, alpha and beta bands. Brain activity in both hippocampus showed an increase in all bands and the suppression of theta band was prominent on day 21 and 28. On the other hands, the suppression of alpha and beta bands were prominent on day 21 and 28 on the sensory region. Large increase of theta activity on day 28 was observed in both frontal and hippocampus regions could be linked to subcortical damage as seen in mild vascular dementia. The suppression of brain activity seen before day 28 may be reflected by the involvement of other monoaminergic systems.

Synthesis and elucidation studies of new trimesic acid derivative trithiol monomer: A potential monomer for colon drug targeting

Siti Nur Aishah Mat Yusuf, Kok Khiang Peh 1 , Vuanghao Lim

Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, 1 Discipline of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: nuraishahyusuf@gmail.com

Colon-targeting drug delivery has recently gained importance as it provides routes for topical treatment of diseases of the colon and delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides. Disulphide bonds are commonly found in peptides and proteins and have been used as drug-glutathione conjugates which are reductively cleaved in the colon. Polymers, which degrade either in the presence of bacterial enzymes or under the low oxidation potential in the colon, are interesting prospects for drug delivery due to their selectivity. Disulphide cross-linked polymer is found to be useful to prevent premature drug release. Although studies of linear chain disulphide polymers have been performed, no studies of cross-linked disulphide polymers as dosage form coating materials have been published. The intrinsic stability of a disulphide relative to thiol groups is determined by the redox potential of the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to synthesise trimesic acid based trithiol monomer for polymerisation into branch-chained disulphide polymers. The monomer was synthesised by amide coupling reaction between trimesic acid and (triphenylmethyl) thioethylamine by using the two-step synthesis method. The monomer was deprotected by using cocktail of trifluoroacetic acid and triethylsilane to expose the thiols in preparation for further polymerisation. White powdery solid was obtained with the yield of approximately 20-25%. Infrared spectroscopy result showed C=O peak (1645 cm -1 ), S-H peak (2552 cm -1 ) and N-H peak (3337 cm -1 ). The Raman spectroscopy obtained for the monomer showed a strong S-H peak at 2550-2600 cm -1 , while elemental analysis of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen were 45.66%, 5.60% and 9.73% respectively. All spectroscopy and elemental results complemented with the desired monomer. The synthesised trithiol monomer has potential to be polymerised as branch-chained disulphide polymer for colon targeted drug delivery system.

Use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) among Malaysian female cancer patients

Maryam Farooqui, Che Noriah Othman, Wan Nordini Hasnor

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail : 0 maryamfarooqui.uitm@gmail.com

Use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is common among healthy individuals as well as among patients with chronic diseases including cancer. Female gender, high educational status and high monthly income are reported to have a significant relationship with CAM use among cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the use of CAM among Malaysian female cancer patients. The study was designed as a questionnaire based, cross sectional analysis. A sample of 260 female cancer patients admitted to the oncology ward at a local hospital in Malaysia was selected for the study. Adult female patients (18 years old), having diagnosed with cancer (any type), able to read or understand Malay (national language of Malaysia) or English language were recruited between August to November 2011. Of 260 female cancer patients 132 (50.7%) had used CAM for their cancers. Majority 84(63.6%) of the CAM users were above the age of 48 years. CAM usage was significantly associated with monthly income (P < 0.001), employment status (P = 0.017) and educational status (P = 0.001). Patients reported to have no monthly income were the highest among CAM users 67(50.7%). Employed patients 39(29.5%) and patients with secondary education level 62(46.9%) were among the highest in CAM use. Biologically-based therapies including nutritional supplements was the most common CAM reported by the patients. Friends and family members 97 (73.4%) were the most common source of CAM information. Only a few patients reported to suffer side effects due to CAM. CAM use disclosure to the doctors was 57 (43.7%); however, doctors had specifically asked about CAM use in 46 (34.8%) of the cases. The most common reason given for non-disclosure was it is not important for the doctors to know about CAM use. The present study confirms high percentage use of CAM among female cancer patients in Malaysia.

Screening of white-distilled vinegar as potential disinfectant

Wan Nordini Hasnor, Suraya Sulaiman, Maryam Farooqui

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mail: nordini.hasnor@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Vinegar has been used traditionally to clean inanimate surfaces in the house however, the anti-infective properties of vinegar are need to be explored. In this study, white-distilled vinegar was tested against yeast, fungi and bacteria to screen for its potential effect as disinfectant. Kirby-Bauer Disk Susceptibility Test and tube dilution method were employed throughout the study. The tested concentrations of vinegar were in the range of 10% to 100% (V/V). Results obtained showed that the vinegar could inhibit the growth of yeast, fungi and selected bacteria on agar plate. The greatest inhibition zone was more than 20 mm. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was 3.125% (V/V) for both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and 6.25% (V/V) for the other microbes. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was 6.25% (V/V) and 12.5% (V/V) depending on the type of tested microbes, whereby no growth was detected on the agar plate. In conclusion, white-distilled has the potential to be used as surface disinfectant.

Compound identification of Clinacanthus nutans (Sabah Snake Grass) extracts by TLC, UV-Vis and FTIR

Che Noriah Othman, Nor Aziyah Bakhari 1 , Nor Aini Mat Jusoh

Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM Pulau Pinang, Bertam Campus, 13200, Kepala Batas, 1 Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM Pulau Pinang, 13500, Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malyasia, E-mail: chenoriah.othman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

The discovery of herbal medicine for cancer treatment opens up hopes for cancer patients. Clinacanthus nutans (Sabah Snake Grass) were used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Due to its high medicinal values in treating cancer, this plant has gained popularity in Malaysia. The current study was conducted to identify the natural product contents in chloroform and ethyl acetate extract of SSG by using the thin layer chromatogrpahy (TLC), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Sabah snake grass powder was extracted with chloroform and ethyl acetate using soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were collected after three days and separated using a rotary evaporator. The crude sample of chloroform and ethyl acetate extract used to identify the natural product contain by using phytochemical analysis method, TLC, UV-Vis and FTIR. In UV-Vis analysis spectrum, chloroform extract showed the presence of phenolic and chlorophyll compound while, ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of phenolic compound. Subjective to FTIR, both chloroform extracts and ethyl acetate extracts showed the presence of alcohols, aliphatic, alkanes, aromatic, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and phenols group. TLC screening showed the presence of flavonoid and terpenoid in chloroform extract, while in ethyl acetate extract flavonoid, terpenoid and saponin were present. This study showed the presence of phenolic, chlorophyll in both extract through UV-Vis analysis. The presence of alcohols, aliphatic, alkanes, aromatic, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and phenols group were detected by FTIR analysis while, flavonoid, terpenoid and saponin were found in TLC analysis. Further studies needed to be conducted to check for the medicinal properties of various compounds from various extraction methods.

Drug related problems identified during pharmacist-initiated home medication review in type 2 diabetes patients

Chow Ee Pin, Mohamed Azmi Hassali

Discipline Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, 11800 Penang, Malaysia, E-mail: e2pin@hotmail.com

Type 2 diabetes patients often linked with concomitant diseases such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. In order to have better control on the blood pressure, sugar level and lipid profile, complex regimens are needed for these groups of patients. Thus, drug related problems might occur with the multiple used of medications. The current study aim To identify drug-related problems during the home medication review programme (HMR) for type 2 diabetes patients from public primary centre in Penang, Malaysia. This was a prospective non-randomised study within the interventional group was conducted at the outpatient clinic in primary health clinic in Bukit Minyak. Eligible type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c >6.5%, taking ≥3 medications, and staying at thier own home were recruited at their own house were recruited. Patients in the interventional group received two home visits by a pharmacist. During the visits, pharmacist conducted medication review and patient interview. All drug-related problems were categorized using the PCNE classification scheme V5.01. The outcomes were the total number of drug-related problems identified, the possible causes of the problems, the interventions provided and the outcomes of the interventions. A total of 75 patients were recruited in the interventional group. Of whom n=60 were visited for interview and medication review. A total of 108 drug-related problems were identified with 16 problems due to patients unsatisfied with the therapy even the correct medications have taken and 18 cases of lack of awareness on diseases and health followed by drug use problem and dosing problems. The most possible causes for the problems were unaware of drug treatment and instruction to use the drug. Medication counselling and written information were the most interventions provided. Out of the 108 problems, 96 (88.9%) were totally solved. As a conclusion, pharmacist-led home medication review able to identified drug-related problems which were overlooked during the usual clinic follow-up.


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