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   2013| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 9, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of the effects of perceived organizational justice and its components on organizational commitment of administrative and financial employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences general hospitals in 2012
Ramin Ravangard, Zahra Sajjadnia, Najme Ansarizade
January-March 2013, 4(1):35-43
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111580  
Objectives: This study aimed to review the effects of perceived organizational justice and its components on organizational commitment of administrative and financial employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences general hospitals in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study conducted in 2012. The population in study was all administrative and financial staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences general hospitals. A sample size of 120 staff was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The required data were gathered using two questionnaires: The modified Persian version of the organizational justice questionnaire developed by Niehoff and Moorman and the Persian version of the organizational commitment questionnaire developed by Allen and Meyer. Also, respondents were asked about their demographic profiles. The response rate was 82%. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS) through some statistical tests such as Independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression (Stepwise method). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean score of perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment were 72.80 and 75.93, respectively. The results showed that affective and normative commitment, as well as total organizational commitment had significant positive correlations with total organizational justice and its three components, that is, procedural, distributive, and interactional justice (respectively, r = 0.544, r = 0.476, r = 0.463, r = 0.509, and P < 0.001). However, continuance commitment had only a significant positive correlation with procedural justice (r = 0.206, P = 0.042). Stepwise multiple regression analysis also showed that only procedural and interactional justice had statistically significant relationships with total organizational commitment (B = 0.511, B = 0.599, and P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improving organizational justice can continuously increase employees' commitment. Therefore, hospital administrators should pay more attention to implement and enhance organizational justice and its components especially procedural and interactional justice in the organization, provide opportunities for supervisors to be trained in behaving better towards employees (interactional justice), and develop a fair system for employees' performance evaluation and their promotions (procedural justice), as well as the provision of rewards (distributive justice) based on related standards.
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Drug information service awareness program and its impact on characteristics of inquiries at DIS unit in Malaysian public hospital
Aida Azlina Ali, Shafinaz Mohd Yusoff, Suhaidah Mohd Joffry, Mohd Shahezwan Abd Wahab
January-March 2013, 4(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111576  
Objectives : To study the Drug Information Service (DIS) awareness program organized by a DIS unit in Malaysian hospital through utilization of provided services by the healthcare professionals, allied healthcare providers, patients and the public, and to identify the characteristics of inquiries received. Materials and Methods : An awareness program to promote the services of the DIS unit was held throughout the month of March in 2010. Drug information queries forms that have been documented six months prior to (September 2009-February 2010) and six months after (April-September 2010) the awareness program were collected and assessed. Mean monthly inquiries volumes pre- and post-program were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Types of information requestors, inquiries, reference sources, and drug class information were identified and evaluated. Results: A total of 747 drug information queries forms were received during the study period. The mean total utilization of the DIS unit services after (63.67 ± 18.24) the DIS awareness program was increased but not significant (P < 0.05) when compared to records before (60.83 ± 21.49) the program. Majority of the DIS service users were the pharmacist (67.5%), followed by the doctors (24.9%). Most inquiries were regarding the dosage and route of administration of drugs (61.4%). The most frequently referred sources of information were the Micromedex and the Internet (37.3%). The most common inquiries were related to the anti-infective agents (37.8%). Conclusion: Provision of sufficient and accurate drug information to the healthcare professionals, patients, and the public is crucial to ensure optimization of therapy. The utilization of services provided by the DIS unit should be supported. Frequent DIS awareness program should be undertaken to promote and encourage the use of services.
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Assessment of quality of life in breast cancer patients at a tertiary care hospital
G Damodar, T Smitha, S Gopinath, S Vijayakumar, Yedukondala A Rao
January-March 2013, 4(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111577  
Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers among women across the world as well as in India and therefore there is a great need to evaluate Quality of Life (QoL). Hence, we carried out a study that could give us an idea to predict the affecting factors on QoL among women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in MGM Hospital, which is located at Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. We assessed the overall QoL, symptoms of patients affected by breast cancer by using QoL questionnaires such as EORTC QLQ C-30, EORTC QLQ-BR23, on ≤2 cycle as Review-I and on ≥5 cycles as Review-II. Results: In the functional scale of breast cancer patients, physical, role function, future perspective and in symptom scale, fatigue, insomnia, arm symptoms and upset by hair loss were found to be significantly affected (P < 0.05). Global Health Status was mainly influenced by physical, social function, body image, future perspective, insomnia, breast and arm symptoms (P < 0.005). Conclusion: These findings have shown that there exists a strong correlation between the length of treatment and the QoL among breast cancer patients. Future interventions should target each specific aspect of QoL.
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EDITORIAL
Innovation or Plagiarism; Think twice before you write
Amer Hayat Khan
January-March 2013, 4(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111572  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study the outpatients' prescription pattern of antibiotics in paediatric populations of two hospitals
Katta Venkatesh Ramanath, B. V. B. Balaji
January-March 2013, 4(1):21-27
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111578  
Objective: To assess the outpatients prescription pattern of antibiotics in paediatric population of a rural and an urban hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional and interventional study was carried out in the paediatric departments of Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research Centre and Jabilli Children HospitalRajahmundry for a period of 7 months, after taking permission from the ethics committee. The consent/assent of the patients was taken, and their data and prescription information was collected by using a patient data collection form This was done for a period of 3 months in each hospital. The collected information was subjected for suitable statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1170, hospital 1: 915/218 and hospital 2: 255/175, prescriptions were screened. Out of which 218 and 175 were contained antibiotics, and the average number of drugs was (2.84 ± 0.11) and (3.61 ± 0.15) for hospital 1 and 2, respectively. The prescriptions contained only one antibiotic. No drug interaction (DI) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were found. Most common diseases found were lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) (hospital 1), and fever and LRTI (hospital 2). Commonly prescribed antibiotic class and drugs was penicillin-amoxicillin (hospital 1), cephalosporins-cefixime, cefuroxime, and cefalexin (hospital 2). The antibiotic combination used was amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. The average total prescription cost and antibiotic cost was Rs. 106.66 and Rs. 70.32 (hospital 1), and Rs. 245.41and Rs. 113.32 (hospital 2), respectively. Conclusion : The prescribing pattern of antibiotics was rational in both the hospitals.
  1 2,630 316
Study the impact of clinical pharmacist provided patient counseling on hypertension management in rural Indian population
Katta Venkatesh Ramanath, Katti Ravi Venkappa
January-March 2013, 4(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111579  
Objective: To assess the patient counseling provided by clinical pharmacist on hypertension management in a rural population. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, randomized and interventional study conducted over a period of 9 months. The envelop randomization method was adopted to group the patients into control and intervention. Results: A total of 200 hypertensive patients were approached. Out of which 95 patients consented to participate and only 90 patients completed the study. Among these hypertensive patients, 65 were men and 25 women. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) score at baseline was 47.76 ± 7.33 in control and 47.20 ± 5.82 in the intervention group, respectively. The same in the third follow-up was found to be 35.96 ± 3.54 in control and 31.56 ± 1.95 in the intervention group, respectively. The P values were 0.691 at the baseline, 0.060 in first follow-up, 0.001 in second follow-up, and < 0.001 in third follow-up. Mean score of various domains (recall, access, and regimen screens) to medication adherence showed a significant improvement. The P values of adherence to medication regimen at baseline and third follow-up was 0.974 and 0.329, respectively. The overall comparison of quality of life (QoL) scores showed a large improvement (suggestive significance) from baseline (P = 0.494) to final follow-up (P = 0.51). Conclusion: This study shows that the involvement of clinical pharmacists in rural hypertension management has a positive impact in creating awareness about the disease, drugs and its usage, and its effect on quality of life.
  1 2,925 277
Physicians' drug prescribing patterns at the national health insurance scheme unit of a teaching hospital in the North Eastern Nigeria
Roland Nnaemeka Okoro, Barnabas Galadima Shekari
January-March 2013, 4(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111574  
Objectives: The aims of the present study were to assess the drug prescribing patterns and rational use of drugs. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a retrospective method between January and March 2012. The out-patient prescription sheets of 12 months period of 2009 were randomly sampled and assessed using WHO prescribing indicators. Results: The average number of drugs per encounter was 3.4 ± 1.4; percentage of drugs prescribed by generic names and percentage of drugs prescribed from NHIS essential drug list were 51.5% and 67.1%, respectively. Percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed and percentage of encounter with an injection prescribed were 56.2% and 5.7%, respectively. The frequency distribution of the commonly prescribed drugs showed that antibiotics, analgesics, and vitamins/minerals were the most frequently prescribed classes of drugs. Conclusion: On one hand, there was under prescribing of injection which is commendable. On the other hand, despite the efforts of WHO and other international organizations in promoting rational use of drugs, irrational prescribing still occurs. There were high tendency of poly pharmacy, overprescribing of antibiotics, lack of compliance with the principles of NHIS essential drugs, and generic prescribing.
  1 2,942 351
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Adherence to antidepressants
Abimbola Farinde
January-March 2013, 4(1):44-46
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111581  
While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines adherence as the extent to which a person's behavior (e.g. taking medications) can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.
  1 2,276 261
Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students
Awanish Kumar Pandey, Poonam Tripathi, Shambaditya Goswami, Rishabh Dev Pandey
January-March 2013, 4(1):47-49
DOI:10.4103/2045-080X.111582  
Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\muscle pain (77.5%). Lethargy (83%) was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5%) have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.
  - 2,988 292
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